Vector approximate message passing (VAMP) is an efficient approximate inference algorithm used for generalized linear models. Although VAMP exhibits excellent performance, particularly when measurement matrices are sampled from rotationally invariant ensembles, existing convergence and performance analyses have been limited mostly to cases in which the correct posterior distribution is available. Here, we extend the analyses for cases in which the correct posterior distribution is not used in the inference stage. We derive state evolution equations, which macroscopically describe the dynamics of VAMP, and show that their fixed point is consistent with the replica symmetric solution obtained by the replica method of statistical mechanics. We also show that the fixed point of VAMP can exhibit a microscopic instability, the critical condition of which agrees with that for breaking the replica symmetry. The results of numerical experiments support our findings.