In this paper we derive a new quantum entropic uncertainty relation, bounding the conditional smooth quantum min entropy based on the result of a measurement using a two outcome POVM and the failure probability of a classical sampling strategy. Our relation works for systems of arbitrary dimension. We apply it to analyze a new source independent quantum random number generation protocol and show our relation provides optimistic results compared to prior work.
What is the minimum number of guesses needed on average to correctly guess a realization of a random variable? The answer to this question led to the introduction of the notion of a quantity called guesswork by Massey in 1994, which can be viewed as an alternate security criterion to entropy. In this paper, we consider guesswork in the presence of quantum side information, and show that a general sequential guessing strategy is equivalent to performing a single quantum measurement and choosing a guessing strategy based on the outcome. We use this result to deduce entropic one-shot and asymptotic bounds on the guesswork in the presence of quantum side information, and to formulate a semi-definite program (SDP) to calculate the quantity. We evaluate the guesswork for a simple example involving the BB84 states, and we prove a continuity result that certifies the security of slightly imperfect key states when the guesswork is used as the security criterion.
We determine the semantic security for quantum wiretap channels. We extend methods for classical channels to quantum channels to demonstrate that a strongly secure code guarantees a semantically secure code with the same secrecy rate. Furthermore, we show how to transform a non-secure code into a semantically secure code by means of biregular irreducible functions (BRI functions). We analyze semantic security for classical quantum channels and for quantum channels.
Due to Csiszár and Körner, the capacity of classical wiretap channels has a single-letter characterisation in terms of the private information. For quantum wiretap channels, however, it is known that regularisation of the private information is necessary to reach the capacity. Here we study hybrid classical-quantum wiretap channels in order to resolve how much quantumness is needed to witness non-additivity phenomena in Shannon information theory. For wiretap channels with quantum inputs but classical outputs, we prove that the characterisation of the capacity in terms of the private information stays single-letter. Hence, entangled input states are of no asymptotic advantage in this setting. For wiretap channels with classical inputs, we show by means of explicit examples that the private information already becomes non-additive when either one of the two receivers becomes quantum (with the other receiver staying classical). This gives non-additivity examples that are not caused by entanglement and illustrates that in the wiretap model quantum adversaries are strictly different from classical adversaries.